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Sciencetech | Mail Online
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Harvard researchers researchers analysed the genomes of more than 160,000 African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans as part of the study.
A Northwestern University professor has plotted a series of graphs revealing some of Hollywood's scripting tricks. They include leaving the phrase 'love you' until the last possible moment.
The Canadian phone firm is working on the secret handset, which it is believed is already being offered to 'approved' purchasers, CEO John Chen (pictured) said.
Nasa has revealed the full video of its Orion capsule's re-entry, recorded from the windows of the capsule as it reached 20,000 mph (32,000 kph) enduring temperatures of 2,200°C (4,000°F).
Tourists have contaminated the pools with make-a-wish coins and rubbish. Researchers say they were originally a deep blue (pictured) - rather than the current orangey green.
Dubbed HIP 116454b, the planet is 2 and a half times the diameter of Earth and follows a nine-day orbit around its star. It is located 180 light-years from our planet, according to Houston-based Nasa.
Panorama secretly filmed on an iPhone 6 production line and found workers falling asleep on their 12 hour shifts. However, experts claim the BBC's report does not fairly reflect conditions in China.
The BBC's Panorama report into conditions in the firm's iPhone 6 production line at the Pegatron factories near Shanghai claimed Apple was breaching its standards.
Scientists at the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco say they may have spotted waves on Titan (illustration shown). Radar data from Cassini suggests there are tiny ripples on the moon.
Research led by Lomonosov Moscow State University in Russia tested the intelligence of crows. It was found they could solve a task that involved picking similar - but not matching - shapes (shown).
A study using driving simulators at Wayne State University in Detroit showed 100 per cent of drivers aged between 45 and 59 years old strayed while sending text messages with one hand.
The California-based app announced the plans earlier this year and began purging unwanted accounts last night. The biggest celebrity loser was Akon (pictured), who shedded 3.2 million.
Archaeologists from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem's Institute of Archaeology, discovered the colossal entrance to the Herodyan Hilltop Palace at the Herodium National Park.
Swedish-based Mojang is teaming up with Telltale Games to create Minecraft: Story Mode. The first episode will be released in 2015, although the exact date wasn't announced.
The journal Science has released its annual top ten of scientific breakthroughs, putting the mission to duck-shaped comet 67P/Churyumov Gerasimenko at the top.
Aberdeen University researchers have set a new record for the deepest fish ever found (shown). It was spotted 26,722ft down in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean.
Researchers from the University of Hong Kong collected data from from academic papers that referenced internet addiction, before looking into internet penetration rates in those regions.
Six months ago scientists managed to send the smell of champagne and macarons from Paris to New York with an iPhone app using a device called the oPhone Duo.
The concept Gadget Sleigh 900, which also has GPS, parking sensors and bulletproof windows, has been designed by Metals4U in Pontefract, West Yorkshire in time for Christmas Eve.
Researchers from the University of Reims in France findings suggest that those celebrating this festive season might do well to give their bottles of bubbly a shake a few minutes before opening.
In an interview with the Australian Financial Review, Mr Wozniak (pictured) said Google Glass owners were brave, but the technology 'makes no sense in terms of what it does.'
Washington-based Microsoft has released a preview of Skype Translator (shown). It lets people of different languages talk to each other on video calls.
SpaceX was planning to land a Falcon 9 rocket on a barge (shown) at Cape Canaveral in Florida today. But the launch has been delayed until Tuesday 6 January due to an issue with one of the engines.
The results, by a team at the University College London, suggest that we have networks of brain cells dedicated to specific compass points, such as north and south.
Geologists from the University of Cologne thought they had misheard fishermen when they told them that storm surges had dragged the 198 ton boulder 150 feet up a beach.
The flaws, to be reported at a hacker conference in Hamburg this month, are in a system called SS7 that allows the world’s cellular carriers to route calls, texts and other services to each other.
Experts claim the Eta Carinae star system is on the brink of a supernova detonation - and could destroy life on Earth.
Les Baugh, who lost both arms in an electrical accident 40 years ago, was able to operate the system by simply thinking about moving his limbs after a groundbreaking procedure in Baltimore.
Los Angeles firm Ad Hoc says its Burner app, described as 'a privacy layer for your phone' lets people use temporary phone numbers - for a price.
A San Francisco inventor has revealed plans for a system to upload his brain to a computer. Randal Koene hopes to be able to replicate the human brain as a mechanical system.
Infrasound may have alerted warblers to the huge storm, according to the University of California, Berkeley, who spotted that the birds fled when trouble was around 560 miles (900km) away.
Over 100 people around the world are now working on plans to make the 'supertubes' a reality.
Researchers analysed alarm calls of Campbell's monkeys in the Tai forest in Ivory Coast and Tiwai Island in Sierra Leone, and found their language was far more complex than thought.
Geologists from the University of Toronto and Oxford University estimate there are 2.5 million cubic miles of water buried in the Precambrian rocks under our feet.
Dinner plate-sized ice (pictured) was seen forming on a quiet stretch of the River Dee, close to Aboyne in Aberdeenshire following heavy frosts that are thought to have frozen foam on the river.
text Is Minecraft ruining children's imagination?
Thu, 18 Dec 2014 18:14:05 GMT
A New York-based study says kids need more unstructured entertainment. Giving them access to games like Minecraft (shown) can inhibit their development of social skills, it claims.
Anthropologists at the University of Otago, New Zealand and Idaho State University believe cultivation of sweet potato may help to explain the mysterious collapse of Easter Island society.
Scientists in Massachusetts and Texas have revealed a spectacular light show taking place in two colliding galaxies (shown), NGC 2207 and IC 2163, 130m light-years away.
A study led by New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science says two-thirds of our mammalian rivals went extinct with the dinosaurs (asteroid impact illustrated), ultimately allowing us to thrive.
The six clays were found during a dig at Khirbet Summeily, Israel. Experts say they offer evidence of biblical kings David and Solomon, who were said to have ruled over the region in 9th century BC.
Wisdom the Laysan albatross (shown) laid the egg at a nesting site 1,200 miles (1,930km) northwest of Hawaii. Experts estimate that this was her 36th egg in three decades.
Researchers from Ontario's Lakehead University scored 126 students on both the Cognitive Test Anxiety Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.
Tiny single-celled organisms were found in samples from deep sea drilling off the coast of Japan. Scientists believe the bacteria survive by eating the coal underground.
Princeton University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology collected 50 samples of rocks from the India's Deccan Traps and found an eruption began 250,000 years before the asteroid strike.
Computer scientists from the University of Wyoming and Cornell University in New York were able to hack the way a computer views objects using unique images that appear as static to humans.
A scientist from the Max Planck Institute in Germany says a star could have a closer encounter with Earth 'soon' - in cosmic terms - which will send comets into the solar system (illustrated)
The rocket, designed to carry heavier communication and other satellites into higher orbit, blasted off from Sriharikota in the southeast state of Andhra Pradesh.
The dramatic moment that Philae was launched to a height of 0.62 miles (1km) after its initial landing on comet 67P has been revealed in a new image by Esa mission control in Darmstadt, Germany.
Archaeologists have found preserved bodies in shafts 75 feet deep over the 300 acre Fag el-Gamous cemetery in Faiyum, Egypt, although how so many people came to be buried there is still a mystery.
Scientists in York and Exeter discovered 'mother' plants teach seeds about the seasons to regulate when they germinate, giving them the best possible start in life.
The listing, first spotted by iClarified, has since been taken down suggesting either the position has been filled, or the Californian firm wasn't ready to make the announcement.
Samsung is rumoured to be in talks with Massachusetts-based startup LoopPay (pictured), which already offers phone cases (pictured) and cards that let people pay for goods wirelessly.
A new analysis of 'Yeti' hair samples by a University of Oxford geneticist suggests the mysterious animal is an extremely rare bear (pictured) that roams the Himalayas.
A type of cloud first photographed in Iowa could soon be added to the International Cloud Atlas. Called undulatus asperatus (shown) it would be the first new cloud type since 1951.
Mystery surrounds a small number of 'superstrong' Viking swords researchers have uncovered. They are all inscribed with a single word - 'Ulfberht', which experts believe may reveal their their maker.
For £60 ($94), backers of the Kent-based project have the opportunity to buy space on memory discs that will be sent to the moon. The mission is currently £597,039 towards its £600,000 goal
For £60 ($94), backers of the Kent-based project have the opportunity to buy space on memory discs that will be sent to the moon. The mission is currently £597,039 towards its £600,000 goal
The $450 Classic focuses on keyboard, security and battery life. CEO John Chen said in Seattle it is aimed at 'loyal customers' - who include Kim Kardashian and Barack Obama.
Missouri researchers warn buying too many presents for children can turn them into materialistic adults and cause behavioural issues in later life.
The 3D-printed KipstR (pictured) band was created by Manchester students Ryan Oliver, 15, and Jonathan Kingsley, 14, in partnership with Virgin Media.
Original founders Michael and Xochi Birch have relaunched the site as a messaging app for phones.
The Voyager 1 spacecraft is still riding a massive 'tsunami wave' that first began in February, Iowa researchers have revealed.
In a series of stunning images, Nasa found America's major cities get brighter by 50% as the holidays approach.
Georgia researchers warned early humans did not live for as long as modern mankind and dieters needed to consider the long-term effects of any specific diet.
text Is Snapchat developing its own Google Glass?
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 20:48:03 GMT
Los Angeles based Vergence labs make glasses with a hidden video camera, and leaked emails show it has been bought by Snapchat.
Esa in Paris has confirmed that its Venus Express spacecraft (illustrated left) has died. The probe had been orbiting Venus (top right) for eight years since 2006 - far exceeding its planned lifetime.
Belgian researchers have used magnets to make beer less foamy (stock image shown). Applying a magnetic field made antifoaming agents more effective, preventing CO2 from being stored.
text Was Earth formed with giant 'oceans' inside?
Wed, 17 Dec 2014 18:01:50 GMT
Researchers at Ohio State University believe the same amount of water that currently fills the Pacific Ocean could be buried deep inside the planet right now.
American scientists find that Arctic ground squirrels churn up permafrost to allow trapped methane to escape and beaver ponds release 200 times more methane than 100 years ago.
Michigan State University scientists have claimed that domestic violence can affect children in early life, even if the abuse is suffered while they're still in their mother's womb (stock image shown).
The study, by the University of California, Berkeley, used beams of x-rays to uncover a crystalline material in Roman concrete that prevents tiny cracks from spreading.
Experts at the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam have now halved the light levels in their galleries to help preserve the Dutch impressionist's masterpieces.
The University of Pittsburgh’s arm (pictured) connects to the brain using electrodes and the wearer can then control the device simply by thinking about movements.
The winners of the 2014 Olympus BioScapes Digital Imaging Competition have been revealed - and First Prize went to a movie of a fruit fly developing from a ball of cells by Virginia scientists (pictured)
Psychologists from Princeton University created a scale of faces, ranging from unattractive to attractive. Those around the half-way point (pictured centre) were considered more trustworthy.
On a holiday to Kilauea in Hawaii, neuroscientist Alex Rivest from Massachusetts, filmed a tour guide stepping on a scorching 700 to 1,200 °C (1,292 to 2,192 °F) lava pool.
Scientists at Syracuse University recorded whales off the coast of Massachusetts and found they make 'tick-tock' noises while hunting together at night in deep, pitch-black water.
Sony said it is hoping to start selling the module (pictured) ‘within the coming year’ and will unveil a concept model at the Consumer Electronics Show in Vegas in January.
Researchers in Maryland have created a computer model that predicts New York City, followed by Philadelphia, Jacksonville and Virginia as being at severe risk of being left in the dark.
The update is being rolled out to iOS and will be coming to Android users of the California-based app soon. It was previously optional, but enhancements are now made automatically.
Hong Kong-based Brando has released a larger version of a Rubik's cube (shown). Each of its six sides have a huge 169 coloured tiles - 1,014 in total. That's 18 times more than the original's 54.
The British Skylon air breathing rocket could power a plane anywhere in the world in four hours and get to space in 15 minutes.
Designed by the University of Western Australia and Mars One astronaut candidate, Josh Richards, Helena (pictured) is one of ten finalists in the Mars One University Competition.
After just a few hours of deliberation, a jury in California has found in favour of Apple in a billion-dollar class-action lawsuit over the price of its iPod music players.
The robot, dubbed Athena, (pictured) was created by German roboticists and is being flown to Max Planck Institute for Computational Learning and Motor Control Laboratory in Baden-Württemberg.
The California space agency used satellite data (pictured) to create an estimate of the water needed to end a drought for the first time .
Nasa scientists in California have revealed evidence for life on Mars (shown). They claim methane spikes on the planet could be produced by bacteria - and there is no better explanation, yet.
Armin Silber, a researcher at the ALMA telescope control center in the Chilean Atacama desert captured this amazing image of a rainbow high over the Chilean desert.
Known as the Year 2038 Problem, the theory was recently proved when Psy's Gangnam Style (pictured) exceeded two billion views on California-owned YouTube.
Residents living in the remote village of Kalachi, north Kazakhstan, say the mystery illness that has affected the locals for the past four years is getting worse.
Dartmouth researchers found one-third of Hawaiian teens have tried e-cigarettes. They claim if a similar pattern was repeated in the US, it could lead to a 'epidemic of teen tobacco use'.
The Arlington-based Defense Advanced Research Agency has successfully tested the world's first 'guided' sniper round which can change direction in mid air.
Women who begin menstruating before age 10 or after age 17 may have a higher risk of heart disease, stroke or high blood pressure, according to a new Oxford study.
text Your all-electric car may not be so green
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 20:16:36 GMT
If it comes from coal, the electric cars produce 3.6 times more soot and smog deaths than gas, because of the pollution made in generating the electricity, Minnesota researchers fpund.
The Californian firm's 14th annual review also found that Ariana Grande is a rising star, Transformers 4 was the most popular film of the year, and Paris is the top holidaying destination of 2014.
The five new filters from the California-based app are called Aden (left) Crema (centre), Slumber (right), Ludwig and Perpetua. They take the total number of options to 25.
Researchers at Nottingham University spent 10 months studying the ways cows talked and found their calls were individualised - reserved for a particular cow and calf so that each recognised the other.
The contactless 'tap and pay' gloves look like ordinary woollen gloves, but allow people to pay in the same way that they would use their contactless card. A trial is currently underway in the UK.
The virtually-complete skeleton dating was found on farmland in the hamlet of Racton, near Chichester, West Sussex.. Racton Man's extremely rare dagger reveals his position as a warrior.
The California-based search engine wouldn't be responsible for selling or shipping the items directly,. Instead, it will work with manufacturers to simply offer a faster payment option.
The tibia bones of sailors (pictured) who sailed on Henry VIII’s Mary Rose ship were analysed at the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital (RNOH).
German and Egyptian archaeologists unveiled the restored monument (pictured) of Amenhotep III, who ruled Egypt between 1386 and 1349 BC, in the famed temple city of Luxor.
A Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientist says life in the universe (stock image shown) may be common. Dr Jeremy England's theory suggests atoms will always pick an organic path.
Munich-based BMW has unveiled technology that can park your car. It uses four lasers on the car to create a virtual map of the car park. Speaking into a watch (shown) will then park or retrieve the car.
text Canada's lost Vikings revealed
Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:36:52 GMT
The discovery by a Aberdeen University reseearcher was made when the interior of a container, unearthed in Baffin Island, was found to contain bronze as well as small spheres of glass.
The prediction, dubbed the 'era of the neo-Luddite', was made by London-based communications agency Hotwire in its sixth annual Digital Trends Report.
Dutch researchers say the the domestication of horses, and the emergence of the racehorse, was all made possible by 125 genes.
London researchers found that older people who feel three or more years younger than their chronological age have a lower death rate compared with those who felt their age.
The windows of the bridge serve as augmented reality displays of the vessel's surroundings, including visualisation of potential hazards that would otherwise be invisible to the human eye.
Northwestern researchers developed a special technique to capture the moment of fertilisation, and found billions of zinc atoms are released.
Images taken by an international team of scientists of the Gamburtseve Mountains have revealed a landscape of jagged peaks that show few signs of erosion.
Researchers at Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany say robots (illustration shown) cannot be moral. In a study, they claim the famous 'trolley problem' prevents such action being programmed.
University of Leeds researchers have claimed sea levels could rise more quickly due to supraglacial lakes, which could cause Greenland's ice (shown in image) to slip into the sea more rapidly.
China is planting huge strips of trees to stop the Gobi Desert (illustration shown). For decades the desert has been advancing and causing serious dust storms in key cities such as Beijing.
Blue beads unearthed in an ancient Ølby grave, south of Copenhagen, match material from Amarna in Egypt and Nippur in Mesopotamia, revealing trade routes 3,400 years ago.
UK-based Jaguar Land Rover have unveiled a smart concept car. It uses cameras to make certain parts of the car 'transparent' when a driver looks in a certain direction (image shown).
Researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta hope their findings help to return the World Heritage Site back to its original colour.
The Max Planck Institute in Germany has revealed the true colour of 67P (shown). The image, taken by combining different filters, reveals what the comet would look like to the human eye.
Participants in the University of Exeter-led study were aged between 60 and 95, receiving care in some form. They were trained how to use the internet over a two-year period.
Ryan Craven, 27, from Austin built the device using four leaf blowers, a 4ft by 4ft (1.2 by 1.2 metre) piece of plywood, a skateboard deck, shower liner, coffee can lids and gaffer tape.
The images were painted by neuroscientist Greg Dunn from the University of Pennsylvania, in the Asian sumi-e style. A crab's stomatogastric ganglion, that controls its digestion is pictured.
Researchers from the University of Grenoble compared the hormone levels of 114 men to the amount of chili sauce they added to mashed potato.
The Montreal Universtiy study found that three genetic variants interacted with each other and with family conflict and sexual abuse to increase the likelihood of delinquency in Swedish teenagers.
In a bizarre study by Concordia University in Montreal, male rats preferred to have sex with female rats wearing special rodent ‘bras’ after being trained to associate clothing with sex.
Bournemouth-based teacher Andy Brunning explained that compounds called glucosinolates that are found naturally in spouts taste particularly bitter to some people.
Research led by Leiden University in the Netherlands has found particles in other galaxies that could be dark matter (illustrated). ‘It could usher in a new era in astronomy,’ said Dr Ruchayskiy.
Products ranging from clothes and toys to home furnishings and health products were advertised on the site for a fraction of their usual price due to a fault with a piece of RepricerExpress software.
Updated landmarks include the Freedom Tower and Statue of Liberty in New York and Bay Bridge and Coit Tower in San Francisco.
Burnt flints discovered in Tabun Cave, near Haifa, northern Israel, may help to rewrite history of human evolution and development of culture.
Sky-watchers across the world braved freezing temperatures to enjoy the Geminid meteor shower after astronomers said the weather conditions were close to perfect, pictured in the Isle of Wight.
A gadget that alerts speeding drivers when emergency vehicles are nearby was last night facing calls by police and motoring organisations to be banned.
The world's biggest particle collider, located near Geneva, has been undergoing a two-year refit. Work is now 'in full swing' to start circulating proton beams again in March.
Minecraft founder Markus Persson sold his game to the Washington-based software giant in September. Minecraft: Pocket Edition is available for phones and tablets running Windows 8.1.
The skeleton of the 50-year-old woman, laid to rest in a ceremonial ritual around 1,000 years ago in the ancient civilisation of Pachacamac, near Lima, Peru, will go on display at a French museum.
The handset, which appears to have a 5.5inch screen, is expected to be unveiled at Mobile World Congress, a trade show in Barcelona, which takes place from 2-5 March.
Samsung's Texas plant has begun making the chip that will power next year's iPhones, it has been claimed.
A video posted to YouTube shows a black object floating above the Statue of Liberty in New York (shown). In the video the object moves across the screen before staying still.
Santa will have to overcome the laws of science when he makes his journey around the world from the North Pole on Christmas Eve (illustration of Santa and his reindeer shown).
A team of Parisian inventors have come up with the Cicret bracelet that aims to replace smartphones by projecting a 'touch screen' onto the forearm using a tiny projector and sensors.
The 5 foot long, 100lb robot, dubbed 'Silent Nemo' can swim into enemy territory and could one day be fitted with weapons.
The image, from Houston-based Nasa, was taken when the Dawn spacecraft was around 740,000 miles (1.2 million km) from Ceres, on its way to meet it the asteroid.
A company based in Lexington, Kentucky, uses weather balloons to transport ashes, which are carried in a concertinaed container, to the edge of space.
Apple's planned Commute Assistant will provide up to the minute information about public transport, allowing commuters to plan and adapt their route, even if travelling by helicopter.
Application submitted to the US Patent and Trademark Office reveals Apple's designs for lasers in future iPhones that can scan rooms and objects to produce 3D maps.
A Viking collection (shown), found in North Yorkshire, has been restored. Called The Bedale Hoard, it includes a neck collar, two silver arm rings, 29 silver ingots and gold rivets.
Nasa interns at the Johnson Space Centre in Houston have created a parody of Meghan Trainor's single, All About That Bass to celebrate the space agency's future plans.
The tool (pictured) was spotted by Oregon-based Twitter user Andy Baio and it lets people create five-second animated clips from uploaded videos.
Ofcom’s International Communications Market Report 2014 found the number of weekly UK visitors to social networks is now 56%, which is a drop from 65% last year.
Britain's intelligence and security organisation is to work with the National Crime Agency to track down dark net users who are sharing child pornography on secret networks.
Millions of Britons have cashed in on midweek two-for-one cinema ticket offers for the past decade, but Orange Wednesdays will be replaced in February next year.
EXCLUSIVE: Over the past 30 days, searches for finalist Fleur East have been consistently high, but real-time data from Google suggest the Italian Mr Faustini (pictured) will take the title on Sunday.
The SS City of Rio de Janeiro struck jagged rocks near the Golden Gate Bridge in 1901 and sank immediately, killing 128 of the 210 passengers and crew aboard the ship.
Speaking at the firm’s offices in California, Mr Zuckerberg said: ‘We need to figure out the right way to do it so [the button] ends up being a force for good, not a force for bad.’
It could be a case of bird-bird, or strange weather patterns causing confusion, but scientists are baffled about instances of flamingos flying north to bitterly cold Siberia for the winter, instead of south.
While no official announcement has been made, the Redmond-based software giant has added a webpage explaining how the currency can be used to top up a Microsoft account.
Iowa is to allow residents to display their driver's license on their phone (shown). Beginning next year all their details will be available in a free app, kept secure using pin verification.
A Romanian computer security firm has shown how messages sent to a watch running Google's Android Wear software can be intercepted and read.
A 20-year study of the Darwin Awards for idiotic fatalities, put together by Californian scientist Wendy Northcutt, found almost 90 per cent were ‘won’ by males (stock picture used).
It is estimated that more than 30,000 drones will have been bought by British consumers by the end of the year — a high proportion of them as Christmas presents.
Nottingham researchers found extroversion was linked to increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes while conscientiousness was linked to reduced levels.
Pennsylvania experts said 'delaying the morning start time of work,' could have a major effect. They found that for every hour that work was delayed, people got 20 minutes more sleep.
Researchers studying emperor and Adélie penguins (pictured) in Antarctica have found the flightless birds have changed considerably compared to other birds in the past 60 million years.
The project, which included researchers from the University of Edinburgh's Roslin Institute, decoded the genetic fingerprint of 45 species including the woodpecker and flamingo.
Scientists from the University of California at Santa Cruz studied the genetics of crocodiles to reveal their unusually slow rate of genetic evolution, when compared to birds.
Researchers at the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris a sharp transition toward moralising religions when individuals in a society felt more secure with basic needs, such as food.
Speaking at a conference in New York, chief content officer Theodore Sarandos said Netflix would unveil 20 shows in the next five years for the popular digital platform (stock image shown).
text Best aerial shots of 2014
Thu, 11 Dec 2014 17:16:22 GMT
The stunning images offer a spectacular view of the planet's landscapes - while also highlighting how the effects of natural phenomenons, human industry and war can show up from space.
Known as Project Jewel, the £726million Jewel Changi Airport terminal will have five storeys above ground and five below ground, and will be unlike any airport that has been built before.
Researchers at the University of Oxford found that brain stimulation can hamper some people's ability to perform sums but can help those who find maths to be stressful.
Washington-based Boeing has revealed how to get to Mars. In a video they have outlined the six steps (shown) needed to land and return. These include the Orion spacecraft and an inflatable heat shield.
Bavan Palasanthiran, Founder of FoneSalesman.com, based in Harrow, Greater London, conducted the experiment to prove the firm’s receiver can be used inside a sealed case.
An Egyptologist from Toronto's Royal Ontario Museum believes the strange coffin markings were made by junior artists, after master craftsmen were deported to Persia in 525 BC.
Sprint customers in the US that join the carrier this month will also get $20 (£13) of free credit to use for their first journey as part of the deal with the San Francisco-based app (pictured).
Scientists from France and Germany hope to use the new form of ice to extract methane from beneath the ocean, convert it to useful energy, and replace it with the CO2.
AI expert Dr Rasmussen from the University of South Denmark has warned of the rise of technology. Companies like Facebook and Google could rob us of our identity (stock image shown)
Hawkmoths (pictured) in Borneo create sonic pulses by rubbing their genitals on their abdomens. These pulses are designed to respond to high-frequency sounds created by bats.
Scientists at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Virginia, used slow-motion cameras to analyse the insect's (pictured) calculated movements to predict the path of its prey.
A probe will drill 330ft (100 metres) below the surface to look at whether it will be possible to someday have observatories on the moon, according to Kent based engineer and financial backer David Iron.
Italian researchers say the technique will allow researchers to see nerve endings ,individual nerves, and touch receptors (pictured), for example - and will boost research into nerve disorders.
The International Air Transport Association and the International Civil Aviation Organisation recently signed a global cyber security agreement, formalising their front against cybercrime.
Croatian programmer Gordon Ugarkovic has improved Cassini's images. He added colour and touched up the snaps to reveal new details. The images include the moons Titan and Dione (shown).
The US Army has awarded a $33 million contract to build the first drone airport at Fort Bliss in Texas. It will have more than a mile of runways for drones, along with a maintenance hanger to look after them.
Prices for the iPod Classic have reached $1000 as music fans clamor to get hold of the music players after Apple discontinued the traditional 'click wheel' models earlier this year.
Nasa researchers in California succeeded in teleporting information about the quantum state of a photon, a particle of light, over 15.5 miles (25 kilometers).
Instagram has overtaken its Silicon Valley rival Twitter, with over 300 million people using its app every month, CEO Kevin system has revealed. Mark Zuckerberb posted this images to celebrate.
Researchers in South Korea say their skin is extremely similar to human skin. It is stretchy, like real skin, and even has a built-in heater so it feels like living tissue.
The mystery of where Earth's water came from has got murkier. Swiss researchers say results from the Rosetta space probe prove water did not come from a comet, as had been previously thought.
The Navy has carried out tests of a radical new laser weapon it says can shoot down missiles and even drones from a warship. 
text Teachers suffer sexism from their STUDENTS
Wed, 10 Dec 2014 19:33:22 GMT
A study by sociologists at North Carolina State University showed that students felt male teachers were more professional, fairer, more enthusiastic and gave more praise than female teachers.
text Is wearing make-up harmful during pregnancy?
Wed, 10 Dec 2014 19:08:18 GMT
A controversial study by Columbia University in New York has found that exposure to the highest levels of two phthalate chemicals led to a lowering of IQ scores at age seven by more than six points.
Scientists at the University of Oxford say their findings are the first example of cultural conformity in non-primate animals and help to explain how great tits learned to raid milk bottles on household doorsteps.
iPhone users in London and New York have reported receiving pictures of Space Sloth from mystery AirDrop users in a prank that highlights how malicious software could be sent to Apple devices.
Scientists in Arizona have found an explanation for sand dunes on Titan (shown). They say the moon's winds occasionally reverse and increase in speed twice every Saturn year - 30 Earth years.
According to California-based Instagram, the most liked image during 2014 was Kim Kardashian’s wedding post in May (pictured), that received more than 2.4 million likes.
Researchers at Aberystwyth University, the University of Exeter and Plymouth University say pond snails are able to sense chemicals released by their predators while they are still embryos.
The theory, known as zoopharmacognosy, has been spotted in macaws in Brazil, elephants in Kenya and even dogs and cats in the UK and US.
Researchers tracked Killer and Humpback whales off the coast of Australia. They identified 19 Killer whales preying on Humpback calves (pictured), and in total, witnessed 22 individual attacks,
Scientists have proposed a radical new theory of time for the universe. UK physicist Dr Julian Barbour and others say there are two arrows of time that formed at the Big Bang (illustrated).
When files are saved, the brain knows the information is stored, according to the University of California. This frees up cognitive resources that can be used to remember new facts and figures.
Mathematician Dr Eugenia Cheng found that the perfect doughnut has an 0.4-inch (11mm) hole, with a ‘squidgy to crispy’ ratio of 3.5 to 1, and 5.8g of sugar.
Scientists at the University of Alicante hope that by seeing the merger of binary stars in MY Camelopardalis they can explain how extremely massive stars form (artist's impression pictured).
Scientists based in San Francisco are working on a substance called Vasalgel – an injectable ‘barrier’ that seals the small tube that carries sperm, called the vas deferens.
The term 'selfie' was mentioned more than any other term by the social network's 284 million active global users this year. Ellen DeGeneres' Oscar selfie (pictured) led the trend.
The California-based Google chief, who is heavily involved in the development of AI for self-driving cars, also claims that the fear of robots stealing human jobs is unwarranted.
The UN Secretary-General Ban told governments at UN talks in Lima there was still a chance of limiting global warming to an internationally agreed ceiling of 2°C (3.6°F) above pre-industrial times.
Researchers from Gama Filho University in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, tested 2002 adults aged between 51 and 80 to prove that their test, and musculoskeletal fitness, is a 'significant predictor' of death.
Nasa's Ames Research Center in California has been working on designing the next generation of planes that will make travelling around the world faster and more fuel efficient.
The Californian social network analysed 2014 data to discover the World Cup was the most popular global topic, while the Scottish referendum racked up the most mentions by UK users.
The software could even warn users if someone else uploads a snap of them, Californian firm Facebook has revealed. It hopes the software will 'mediate' users interactions with their friends.
Nasa has used medical scanners to create a 3D image of its spacesuit in a bid to work out why Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano nearly drowned in his helmet in 2013.
McMaster team found that when they removed or enzyme that makes serotonin mice fed a high-fat diet were protected from obesity, fatty liver disease and pre-diabetes.
Researchers at Princeton University say abandoned wells (shown) in Pennsylvania are emitting natural gas. And as many as three million nationwide could be leaking.
California-based video sharing site, YouTube, has released its annual list of global top-trending videos, with the top spot going to the aptly-titled Mutant Giant Spider Dog (pictured).
The Science Museum in London has acquired hundreds of drawings, observations and notes made by Sir Patrick Moore at his home in West Sussex during his 60 year long career.
Researchers from the University of South Maine found that people were distracted by their mobile - even when it wasn't in use (stock image shown). The presence of a phone limited reaction times.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology researchers have developed a method to detect hazardous gases and pollutants. The NFC chips could even tell when food in a fridge (stock image shown) is off.
The Paris-based International Council for Science has launched a programme that aims to understand how a city environment can be changed to improve the health of its residents.
Researchers from the Juan March Institute in Madrid studied data based on relationships of 4,561 middle-aged US couples over 20 years, including their sex lives and chore habits (illustrated).
Canadian engineer James Befurt was tired of wasting time on Tinder, so he took matters into his own hands. Using a computer programme, a clever motor setup and stylus, he can swipe right indefinitely.
Nasa's Orion spacecraft uses IBM PowerPC 750FX chips - the same as in Apple's 2003 iBook G3 - to survive harsh radiation. Yesterday it was returned to shore in San Diego by the USS Anchorage.
Researchers at the University of East Anglia blame climate change for increasing frequency of heatwaves and extreme cold weather that has been hitting many parts of the world.
The Nidelric pugio's fossilised remains were unearthed in Chengjiang in southern China and allow experts to see how the balloon-shaped, spiny animal functioned.
The study, by the University of Guelph, looked at more than 7,000 homes and farm sales in 11 townships in Ontario, Canada, and found no link between wind turbines and lower house prices.
Geologists in Italy have calculated that vibrations from cement factories in Italy may be responsible for shaking up to half of the country.
Called the Samsung Gear VR, users slip a Note 3 tablet into the $200 headset to provide the screen. It was developed with California firm Oculus.
Officials have confirmed the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport launchpad in Virginia (shown) could be repaired as soon as 2015. The Antares rocket exploded seconds after lift-off on 28 October.
A study by Vanderbilt University in Nashville showed that electric eels (pictured) were able to detect fish through a thin gelatine barrier by making them 'twitch' using less powerful shocks.
A 4-inch version of the iPhone 6 is in development to replace the iPhone 5c as a lower coast and 'female friendly' design, Chinese rumour site Feng.com has claimed.
Scientists in a Prague lab used a powerful laser to re-create what might have been the original spark of life on Earth.
Inventors in Mountain View, California, have created the Fineck neckband to monitor a wearer’s movements and balance, and suggest exercises to improve their posture.
A Washington-based company is planning to build an elevator on the moon (artist's illustration shown). The LiftPort Group says it could be up and running by the end of 2019.
The UK Met Office says the chance of warmer weather in Europe is predicted to increase due to climate change. Warm summers and heatwaves (UK shown in 2003) will increase ten-fold, they say.
It has taken researchers at the University of Wollongong (UoW), New South Wales, Australia, 15 years to develop their bionic bra that contains sensors to monitor and control movement.
Palaeontologists and salvagers based in Urk, in the Netherlands, found large mammoth bones in the 'relatively' shallow part of the North Sea near Rotterdam.
California-based Apple has announced its biggest selling apps of the year. Minecraft (shown) was the most popular paid-for app, while Facebook Messenger was the most downloaded free app.
The poll, which was conducted by Brandon McDaniel of The Pennsylvania State University and Sarah Coyne of Brigman Young University in Utah, surveyed 143 women.
Researchers from the University of Oslo have revealed that 'significant' numbers of women accompanied Viking men when they sailed to places like the Scottish mainland in longboats.
In a metropolis like London, England, light pollution makes the night sky invisible. But photographer Nicholas Buer shows how the capital would look if all the lights were switched off.
Bizarre Japanese cookery video demonstrates the four-step process to make a perfect plate of lightly battered, flash-grilled shrimp. It uses air cannons, CO2 tanks and flame throwers.
The UK Airprox Board, the air safety panel, gave the incident the highest risk rating of A, meaning there was a ‘serious risk of collision’ after the drone was spotted by pilot - but not by air traffic control.
Scientists from the University of Toronto invented a new way to spray solar cells onto flexible surfaces using miniscule light-sensitive materials known as colloidal quantum dots.
Orion has splashed down at its target point 275 miles (442 km) west of Baja, California, after re-entering the atmosphere at 20,000 mph (32,000 kph) and enduring temperatures of 2,200°C (4,000°F).
MIT researchers believe a lunar dynamo, a molten, churning core at the centre of the moon, may have powered an intense magnetic field for at least 1 billion years.
The massive stick insect has entered the record books as the planet's second largest insect following its discovery by entomologists in a remote Vietnamese jungle.
Male smokers are three times more likely than non-smoking men to lose their Y chromosomes, a new Swedish study has found.
A Utah researcher has investigated how objects skip on water (stock image shown). He found that the optimal angle to skim stones was 20 degrees, but heavier objects needed a flatter angle.
University of Washington researchers say planets around red dwarfs (illustrated) cannot be habitable, because their water is boiled away - but a thick oxygen atmosphere makes them look liveable.
Scientists at the University of Leeds studied stalagmite formation in caves to model how dangerous salts form in nuclear waste, which they believe can now be used to design better kettles.
The California-based Facebook founder (pictured) retaliated by telling Tim Cook to make products like the iPhone and the iPad cheaper if he wanted to be more in touch with his consumers.
Russian police want to use reindeer to chase down criminals in the Yamalsky municipality in western Siberia, where drunken brawls and robberies are a problem.
South African researchers have claimed that the universe is governed by a 'golden ratio'. This is said to be 1.618 and causes similar geometric shapes that can be seen in objects across the cosmos.
California-based Facebook has unveiled simplified privacy information on their site (screenshot shown), which uses infographics to explain how data is used by the social network.
Michigan researchers studied pandas in China's Wolong Nature Reserve (pictured) and found they were more adaptable than had been thought.
One Reddit user wore a heart rate monitor throughout his proposal day in Rome - and admitted his biggest worry was losing the ring before he asked the question.
Biologists for the Royal Zoological Society of Scotland captured intimate relationship between mother giant armadillo and her baby (pictured) as she raised him in the Pantanal tropical wetlands of Brazil.
Dutch rail company Nederlandse Spoorwegen has fitted a prototype high powered laser system under two of its trains to vaporise leaf mulch that builds up on tracks.
Researchers at the University of Bradford analysed the coffins and bones of overlooked Roman graves to reveal the use of frankincense (pictured) in Roman Britain for the first time.
One of Nasa's experimental research craft has been spotted on an African runway amid claims it is being used to create high resolution 3D maps to fight terrorism.
Researchers from the University of Antwerp studied sexting behaviour in 15- to 18-year-old students. The students were asked how often they use the web, watch music videos and view porn.
The £555 Yotaphone 2 (pictured) launched in London yesterday. It will then rollout to the rest of the UK, into Europe later this month and worldwide early next year.
More than 100 leading scientists have called for action on asteroids. The London-based Asteroid Day movement says we are in grave danger from an incoming object (illustration shown).
Researchers from the universities of Essex and Exeter recorded noise levels in healthy and declining reefs in with different levels of protection around islands in the Philippines.
The ancient mollusc (shown), originally discovered on the island of Java, is between 430,000 and 540,000-years-old, dating to the time Homo erectus inhabited the remote volcanic outpost.
A California-based technology company has developed lights that use a magnetic field to power LED bulbs that they say will last 20 years longer than traditional Christmas lights.
The 21-year study by Nasa and the University of California, Irvine, found that the Amudsen Sea Embayment lost an average 83 gigatons per year.
The Tissint meteorite (fragment shown) fell to Earth in Morocco on 18 July 2011. It was ejected from Mars by an asteroid impact 700,000 years ago, and may have carbon of biological origin.
Researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) studied goats at Buttercups Sanctuary for Goats in Monchelsea, Kent to get a clear understanding of how they express their emotions.
Patent files (pictured) from the Californian tech giant show a new design for a high-tech headset that features a thinner casing above the left ear, making it more inconspicuous.
Professor Hawking (pictured) made today's claims at an event in London, during which he unveiled a new communications platform, designed by Intel, that will replace his current system.
Researchers from Yale University, Connecticut said that unlike humans, monkeys are not tricked into believing that more expensive items are automatically better quality.
The terrifying sound emitted by the whistles has been linked to human sacrifice because two were discovered in the hands of a slain man who was found front of the temple of a wind god in Mexico.
A study by the University of Sussex found that girls wrote more complex computer game programs, but that film portrayals of nerdy computer geeks may be putting them off.
Sir Clive Sinclair, with help from Luton-based Retro Computers, is launching the Sinclair Spectrum Vega (pictured). It has fewer buttons than the original and runs more than 14,000 of the original games.
The mysterious mineral was found by Oliver Tschauner of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and his team in the Tenham meteorite, which hit Australia in 1879.
Scientists at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge created working enzymes from a synthetic form of DNA called XNA, which could be used to create synthetic life.
Physicists from the University of Warwick created a new shape of pasta known as anelloni (pictured) that forms in rings, and resembles ring polymers found in synthetic plastics and nature.
Researchers at Washington State University have come up with a prototype handheld breathalyser to detect THC, which is the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis (illustrated).
The video was filmed in 2008 at UT Arlington Aerodynamics Research Center. The engine can can theoretically power planes (the SR-72 concept pictured) at five times the speed of sound.
Scientists at the University of Rochester found human glial cells grew to replace the cells in the brains of mice, helping the rodents to perform better in memory tests.
Aurora is rumoured to be a a top secret aircraft being built by US military, that has been in development since 1989. It could be behind Lockheed Martin's SR-72 plane concept (pictured).
The cheetah, described as the 'Ferrari in the robotics world' by the the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is able to jump 16 inches (40 cm) and can gallop for 15 minutes.
Italian historian Angelo Paratico said the fact Leonardo da Vinci, left, was left handed and the Mona Lisa, right, looks Chinese supports his theory the artist's mother was an Oriental slave.
The Darmstadt-based team made the commets in a recent Reddit 'ask me anything' session. Stephan Ulamec, manager of the Philae lander, said he was 'very optimistic' that it would soon wake up.
Visitors to sites, including the Independent and the Daily Telegraph, saw random pop-up messages accompanied by a blank screen that says 'you have been hacked by the Syrian Electronic Army (SEA)'.
text Will the iPhone 6 Plus kill off the iPad?
Sun, 30 Nov 2014 12:52:04 GMT
California-based Pocket app found that users with an iPhone 6 read on their tablets 19 per cent less, while those with a 6 Plus are on their tablets 36 per cent less.
This balloon costs the rocket bottom price of just 99 cents and will take just 10 seconds to put on. If you've ever been in the market for a new phone case this handy balloon could do the trick.
Gamma ray bursts seen spewing from a black hole at the centre of galaxy IC 310 (illustrated) in the Perseus constellation have led astronomers to make new predictions about the behaviour of black holes.
This is according to Argentinian researchers who found an eclipse calendar - a dial on the back of the mechanism - includes a solar eclipse that happened on May 12, 205 B.C.
Scientists at the University of Huddersfield found the drug ethane-beta-sultam was able to pass through the brain's natural defence barrier reducing the loss of brain cells which causes poor memory.
Scientists at Saint Louis University in Missouri managed to block a pain pathway in rodents with chronic neuropathic pain, which develops due to nerve damage.
Revealed in Seoul, and called EyeCan+, the portable box allows disabled people to write documents or browse the internet by blinking and moving their eyes.
Sources ‘familiar with the plans’ told the Wall Street Journal the California-based firm is looking to release a range of drones ‘late next year’, expected to retail between $500 (£317) and $1,000 (£634).
The Vela One rig, made by a Bristol-based company, captures moments that last just two millionths of a second, such as the moment fruit is hit by a ball bearing, so that it breaks apart and sprays juice.
Researchers from Carnegie Mellon performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of eight people as they read a chapter of a Potter book.
Scientists at the University of Colorado Boulder have outlined a number of theories that could create such a barrier, but have yet to identify its source or how it is maintained.
Sussex researchers have found that pet dogs process language in a similar way to humans, learning to recognise the groups of consonants and vowels that make up spoken commands.
Victorian tiles, a bread oven and an Art Noveau mosaic floor are among the artefacts discovered in Jackfield, Shropshire, where 27 houses were buried beneath mud in 1952.
The US Special Operations Command is funding a radical new drug being developed by Australian scientist to put the injured into a 'survival window'.
An Israeli-based firm has created a smart home system that uses gestures. Called onecue (shown) it syncs with existing smart devices like Nest, in addition to infrared devices like standard TVs.
Children are handing out unusual festive delicacies containing insects as the main ingredient in London's famous Borough Market to raise awareness of sustainable food.
Researchers from Federation University Australia and the University of Oxford set out to prove whether a barista’s claim, that coffee drunk from a white cups tastes bitter, is true.
Psychologists at Texas State University believe their results may explain those embarrassing encounters in bars when men misinterpret the intentions of the woman they are talking to.
The Fairphone is available from The Phone Co-op and is made from conflict-free minerals such as tin, which are sourced in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Astronauts on the ISS have printed the first 3D object in space (shown). They used a printer built by California-based company Made in Space, taken to the ISS in September by SpaceX's Dragon capsule.
The smart earplugs (pictured) were built by San Diego-based Hush. They connect to an app via Bluetooth and the earplugs play soothing music to help wearers get to sleep, while blocking external noises.
Images from Nasa's Dawn Mission have been used to create a series of high-resolution geological maps of the large asteroid Vesta, revealing the variety of surface features in unprecedented detail.
Nearly four decades of observations of Tanzanian chimpanzees in the found that the mothers of sons are about 25 percent more social than the mothers of daughters.
A team of researchers from led by the University of St Andrews in Scotland has sequenced the first full myriapod genome - a complete set of DNA - from the Strigamia maritima centipede (pictured).
Tel Aviv-based StoreDot says it has developed a battery that can store a much higher charge more quickly, in effect acting like a super-dense sponge to soak up power and retain it.
Arki, (pictured) developed by Seoul-based Zitko, uses machine learning technology to analyse a users’ walking posture. Haptic feedback then gives the wearer prompts to improve their posture.
Adults who experienced conflict as children were found to have lower stress hormone responses following disagreements with their partners, according to research.
Scientists at Portsmouth University found that heterosexual people with high levels of progesterone are more open to the idea of engaging in sexual behaviour with other people of the same sex.
A team of UK, US and Australian researchers have measured Antarctic sea ice. They found it was up to 56ft (17 metres) thick in places - much thicker than expected - using an underwater robot (shown).
University of Pennsylvania researchers studied human cooperation, and they found that people were more likely to be selfish (stock image shown) in the Prisoner's Dilemma if the reward was greater.
Researchers from Harvard Medical School in Massachusetts, transformed mouse and human skin cells directly into pain-sensing neurons (illustrated) to study different types of pain.
Researchers from San Diego State University conducted two experiments to find that voices change as status increases (Hilary Clinton, pictured)
Scientists at Princeton University, New Jersey, studied the waves created by people carrying different beverages to demonstrate that foam reduces sloshing and dampens the waves.
The T-Band (pictured) was created by California-based Kairos and features a smart module that attaches to watch straps measuring between 18mm and 24mm.
Johns Hopkins experts have uncovered a fossil from an ancient common ancestor of horses and rhinos.
Cern in Geneva has begun releasing collision data from the LHC on their Open Data Portal website (screenshot shown). The public are invited to use the information for research and education.
A scientist is to present his theory at a talk in Illinois that ancient life on Mars was massacred. Dr Brandenburg says there is evidence for two nuclear explosions on Mars (image from his paper shown).
A scientist in France has narrowed down Philae's landing site to a small strip (shown). Dr Kofman used data from a 3D mapping instrument called Consert, and now images will be studied to find the probe.
Only seven per cent of B-sized women are in the 'high spending' categories, while 33 per cent of women with E-sized bras are big spenders, according to Hangzhou-based site Alibaba.
A trial involving 600 families based in the UK and US, found that children as young as 18 months old listened harder and for longer when playing an app with an English voice.
Scientists from Princeton University in New Jersey have managed to make a 3D printer that can create a five layered contact lens (standard lens is pictured), where one layer beams light into the wearer’s eye.
A bus powered by human waste has taken its maiden journey from Bath to Bristol. The Bio-Bus is fuelled by biomethane gas from sewage and food waste. A single tank can run for 190 miles (305km).
Researchers from the University of South Brittany found that, during tests, 36 out of 60 men would help a woman wearing a two-inch heel, but this rose to 49 when the heels rose to four inches.
The stark report, by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) said that emissions need to peak within a decade, with all greenhouse gas emissions halving by mid-century.
Physicists from Imperial College London say gravity saved the early universe (evolution of the cosmos shown). They say it interacted with the Higgs boson to provide stability 13.8 billion years ago.
The animation, created by Houston-based Nasa, follows the life of the asteroid and how the Osiris-Rex mission to reach Bennu could reveal the origin of the solar system.
Researchers from New York University found that men in relationships who have an age ending in nine - 29, 39, 49 - were much more likely to register for an extramarital dating site than men of other ages.
text Why are seals having sex with PENGUINS?
Tue, 18 Nov 2014 15:53:03 GMT
Scientists from the University of Pretoria monitor wildlife on Marion Island for unusual behaviour. On four recent occasions, they spotted Antarctic fur seals sexually harassing king penguins.
Developed with New York fashion brand Opening Ceremony, the snakeskin bracelet is called My Intelligent Communication Accessory, or MICA.
More than 2,000 parents with children aged between 8 and 12 were surveyed by London-based Bullguard. Almost 80 per cent blamed vast amounts of content on the web, peer pressure and social sites.
On December 6th, the piano-sized craft will come out of its hibernation to take historic images and data from Pluto – a dwarf planet whose appearance remains a mystery to astronomers.
The babies were buried (site pictured) by North America’s earliest inhabitants - ‘Paleo-Indians’ - who crossed over a land bridge from Siberia, which existed at the end of the last Ice Age.
Researchers from the University of Auckland found 'robust evidence' of a link between a belief, or acceptance, of gods, and both resource scarcity and ecological risk.